Thermal management is a process of controlling the temperature of an electronic component or system to ensure proper functionality and prevent component failure due to excessive heat. It includes components such as heat sinks, thermal paste, and cooling fans. The goal is to maintain an optimal temperature for the component to prevent it from overheating and to keep it running safely and efficiently. Heat sinks are generally used to cool hot components by dissipating heat from the component or system to avoid overheating. Thermal paste helps with even distribution of heat from the component thus helping in heat distribution. Cooling fans are also used to help with the flow of air around a component or system to help keep it at the optimal temperature.